2007年09月17日13時15分掲載  無料記事


【34】「成功に応じた帰還」 偉大な王様ブッシュ?

 ブッシュ大統領がイラク政策に関連してまたも新しいキャッチフレーズを編み出した。” return on success”(成功に応じた帰還)だ。returnには帰還という意味の他に経済的利益という意味がある。これは一種の暗喩である。ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙はこれをオーウェル的スローガンだと批判した。(鳥居英晴) 
 ブッシュのイラクに関してのこれまでのキャッチフレーズには“Mission Accomplished” “stay the course” “freedom is on the march” “new way forward” “turning the corner”などがある。13日のテレビ演説でブッシュは次のように述べた。 
 The principle guiding my decisions on troop levels in Iraq is "return on success." The more successful we are, the more American troops can return home. 
 これはブッシュのマントラ"as the Iraqis stand up, we will stand down."(イラク人が立ち上がれば、われわれは撤退する)のrhetorical makeover(修辞的化粧直し)である。ブッシュは2005年6月28日の演説でこの表現を使って以来、これを繰り返している。. 
 ロサンゼルス・タイムズ紙(9月14日)のDoyle McManusは解説記事Redefining 'victory'(「勝利」の再定義)で次のように述べている。 
 For more than four years since the invasion of Iraq, President Bush most often has defined his objective there with a single, stirring word: "Victory." 
 But this week, the word "victory" disappeared from the president's lexicon. It was replaced by a slightly more ambiguous goal: "Success." 
 "The success of a free Iraq is critical to the security of the United States," Bush said Thursday evening in his brief televised address from the Oval Office. 
"Now, because of the measure of success we are seeing in Iraq, we can begin seeing troops come home," he said. 
 ワシントン・ポスト紙(9月15日)のSridhar PappuはThe New Phrase Of the Iraq War: Bush's 'Return On Success'(イラク戦争の新しいフレーズ ブッシュの「成功に応じた帰還」)と題し、次のように解説している。 
 Success, like expectations, is a word supple with ambiguity. Webster's New World College Dictionary defines it as a "favorable or satisfactory outcome or result." Victory, meanwhile, is "final and complete supremacy or superiority in battle or war." Yeah, there's a difference. 
 (expectationsのようにsuccessはあいまいな言葉である。ウェブスターのNew World College Dictionaryはそれを「好ましい、満足な成果ないし結果」と定義している。一方、victoryは「戦闘、戦争での最終的で完全な優位ないし優勢」である。そう、違いがある) 
 Presidents bend the English language like George Reeves did with metal pipes as "Superman." What makes this different is that it seems sprung from a game of buzzword bingo around the conference table. It has echoes of "return on investment," which is strictly about the Benjamins. 
 "It was clever," Hurlburt, a speechwriter for the Clinton administration, continued, "but trying to force a business metaphor in there is out of whack with where most Americans are on Iraq. There might be tiny groups of people who think business metaphors are an appropriate way to think about what needs to happen in Iraq. But regardless of where they stand on the war, most people see it framed in terms of great sacrifice and a great national security risk, none of which business metaphors are applicable to." 
 (「それは気が利いている」とクリントン政権のスピーチライターのHeather Hurlburt,は言う。「だが、ビジネスの暗喩を強要しようとすることは、イラクについてほとんどの米国人が考える立場と合わない。ビジネスの暗喩がイラクのことを考えるのにふさわしいと考える人が少数いるかもしれない。だが戦争に関してどのような立場を取ろうとも、ほとんどの人は戦争を大きな犠牲と大きな国家安全上の危険の枠組みで見ており、そのどれもビジネスの暗喩が適用できるものではない」) 
 ニューヨーク・タイムズ(9月14日)はNo Exit, No Strategy(出口なし、戦略なし)と題する社説で次のように述べている。 
The White House insisted that President Bush had consulted intensively with his generals and adapted to changing circumstances. But no amount of smoke could obscure the truth: Mr. Bush has no strategy to end his disastrous war and no strategy for containing the chaos he unleashed. 
 Last night’s speech could have been given any day in the last four years ― and was delivered a half-dozen times already. Despite Mr. Bush’s claim that he was offering a way for all Americans to “come together” on Iraq, he offered the same divisive policies ― repackaged this time with the Orwellian slogan “return on success.” 
 (昨夜の演説は過去4年のどの日にもできたであろう。また既に6回もしている。ブッシュ氏はイラクに関してすべての米国人が団結する方法を示していると主張するが、同じ対立を生む政策を示した。今回はオーウェル的なスローガンの“return on success.”で化粧直しして) 
 AP通信(9月14日)はBush Recasts War Rationale(ブッシュ、戦争の理由付けを書き直す)と題したTom Raumによる解説を配信した。 
 It was just the latest Bush war rationale rhetoric shift. 
 It all started with confiscating Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction. When ``mission accomplished'' turned out premature, and such weapons were not found, the goal became saving Iraqis from a brutal dictatorship. Then it became spreading democracy through the Middle East. Then fighting terrorists there - so as to not to have to fight them at home. 
 Military analysts suggested Bush's announcement of a troop drawdown is less reflective of successes in Iraq than of the reality that, absent a new military draft, the U.S. is short of troops to send - unless Bush wants to further extend the current 15-month deployments. 
 Sometime next spring is the ``natural end of the `surge,''' said Michele Flournoy, a former Pentagon defense strategist and now president of the Center for a New American Security, a think tank that focuses on national-security issues. ``I don't see any indication of a fundamental restructuring.'' 
 (国防総省の防衛戦略家であったMichele Flournoyによると、来年の春は「増派の自然の終了」であるという。「基本的なリストラの兆候は見えない」) 
 There are about 169,000 U.S. troops in Iraq - the highest total of the war. When Bush announced a buildup last January, there were 130,000 to 135,000. In rough terms, Bush's ``new'' strategy envisions bringing home roughly the same number that he added. 
 That reminded some war critics of the old English children's nursery rhyme in which the ``grand old Duke of York'' marched ten thousand men ``up to the top of the hill. And he marched them down again.'' 
 ``And when they were up, they were up. And when they were down, they were down. And when they were only halfway up, they were neither up nor down.'' 
 これはお遊戯の歌。この曲にあわせてAnd when they were up, they were upのところで立ち上がり、And when they were down, they were downのところで座る。 And when they were only halfway upで中腰になる。 
 "We have difficult work to do in Iraq. We have begun the search for hidden chemical and biological weapons, and already know of hundreds of sites that will be investigated. Our coalition will stay until our work is done. And then we will leave - and we will leave behind a free Iraq." (2003年5月1日) 
 "I recognize that Americans want our troops to come home as quickly as possible. So do I. We will stay in Iraq as long as we are needed, and not a day longer."(2005年6月28日) 
 "Most Americans want two things in Iraq: They want to see our troops win, and they want to see our troops come home as soon as possible. And those are my goals as well. I will settle for nothing less than complete victory."(2005年11月30日) 
 "My fellow citizens: Not only can we win the war in Iraq - we are winning the war in Iraq. I also want to speak to those of you who did not support my decision to send troops to Iraq: I have heard your disagreement, and I know how deeply it is felt. Yet now there are only two options before our country - victory or defeat."(2005年12月18日) 
 "Our goal in Iraq is victory, and victory will be achieved when the terrorists and Saddamists can no longer threaten Iraq's democracy, and when Iraq is not a safe haven for terrorists to plot new attacks against our nation. As Iraqis stand up, America and our coalition will stand down."(2006年3月14日) 
 "The situation in Iraq is unacceptable to the American people - and it is unacceptable to me. It is clear that we need to change our strategy in Iraq. If we increase our support at this crucial moment, and help the Iraqis break the current cycle of violence, we can hasten the day our troops begin coming home."(2007年1月11日) 
 "This vision for a reduced American presence also has the support of Iraqi leaders from all communities. At the same time, they understand that their success will require U.S. political, economic, and security engagement that extends beyond my presidency."‘2007年9月14日) 

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