2008年02月12日13時14分掲載  無料記事



 ブッシュ王朝、クリントン王朝、カストロ王朝、金王朝・・・。王政の廃止を決めたネパールではコイララ王朝がそれに取って代わろうとしている。日本でも世襲政治家の首相が続いている。ボストン・グローブ紙のH.D.S. Greenwayのコラム(1月8日)のタイトルのように、”dynastic politics at work”(世襲政治が稼働中である)。独裁体制のもとではもちろん、選挙を通じたものであっても、dynastyはdemocracyと言えるのであろうか。(鳥居英晴) 
1 : a succession of rulers of the same line of descent (同じ家系の支配者が継続すること) 
2 : a powerful group or family that maintains its position for a considerable time 
5: the absence of hereditary or arbitrary class distinctions or privileges 
 世襲政治は英語で”dynastic politics”だけでなく”hereditary politics”と言われることもあるが、後者は米国のそれに対してはあまり使わないようだ。 
 昨年12月、暗殺されたパキスタンのベナジル・ブット元首相の後継者として、長男ビラワル(19)がパキスタン人民党の総裁に選出されたことをきっかけに、米国の主流派メディアも米国での”dynastic politics“の問題を取り上げ始めた。それ以前に問題にしていたのは、ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙のコラムニストのニコラス・クリストフである。2007年5月7日のコラム、”All in the families”(すべてそのファミリーに)で次のように述べている。 
 If Mrs. Clinton were elected and served two terms, then for seven consecutive presidential terms the White House would have been in the hands of just two families. That’s just not the kind of equal-opportunity democracy we aspire to. Maybe we can’t make America as egalitarian and fluid as we would like, but we can at least push back against the concentration of power. 
 The political aristocracy in this country is more fluid than past nobility, and that is how the Clinton family entered it. But the benefit of membership in that aristocracy has probably increased over time, as larger Congressional districts and the rising cost of campaigns make it harder for an unfinanced unknown to rise in politics. 
 Particularly after George W. Bush rose to the White House partly because he inherited a name and rolodexes of donors from a previous president, we should take a deep breath before replacing one dynasty with another. 
 America’s history is based on a rejection of aristocracy. 
 In South Asia ― Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka ― it has been common for a spouse or child to inherit a political office. But that always has the feel of a politically immature democracy. It would feel very Sri Lankan if we had a father-son series and a husband-wife series of presidents. 
And if Jeb Bush succeeds Hillary Clinton in the White House, I’ll flee to Sri Lanka. 
 1月31日のコラムでもクリストフは、”Dynastic Question”に注意喚起している。 
 In a presidential campaign that has involved battles over everything from Iraq to driver’s licenses, one sweeping topic has gone curiously unexamined: Does it diminish American democracy if we keep the presidency in the same two families that have held it since 1989? 
 If Hillary Rodham Clinton serves two terms, then for 28 years the presidency will have been held by a Bush or a Clinton. By that point, about 40 percent of Americans would have lived their entire lives under a president from one of these two families. 
Wouldn’t that make our democracy seem a little, er, Pakistani? 
 We Americans snicker patronizingly as “democratic” Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Singapore, India and Argentina hand over power to a wife or child of a former leader. Yet I can’t find any example of even the most rinky-dink “democracy” confining power continuously for seven terms over 28 years to four people from two families. (And that’s not counting George H.W. Bush’s eight years as vice president.) 
 A tongue-in-cheek Web site called Bush-Clinton Forever is already proposing Jeb Bush in 2017, Chelsea Clinton in 2025, Jeb Bush’s son George P. Bush in 2033, Chelsea Clinton’s husband in 2041 and George W. Bush’s daughter Jenna Bush from 2049-2057. 
 In America anybody can grow up to be President. (米国では、誰でも大統領になれる)とよく言われる。1988年の米大統領選挙で候補者のうち3人が上院議員の息子であったことを指摘したニューヨーク・タイムズ(同年1月27日)の記事は、もうひとつの格言を引用している。The apple seldom falls far from the tree.(りんごは木から遠いところにはめったに落ちない) 子供は親のあとを継ぐものという意味である。 
 Wikipediaにある”List of United States political families”は578の米国の”political families”を列挙している。Wikipediaによれば、“political family”とはa family in which several members are involved in politics, particularly electoral politics.(政治、特に選挙政治に関与する数人のメンバーを持つ家族)である。 
 ワシントン・ポスト紙(2月4日)のWilliam Boothは“Relative power”(身内の力)と題する記事によれば、世襲政治は米国的なものであるという。 
 The American people, having won in violent revolution their freedom from the tyranny of kings, quickly surrendered to the idea that certain families are destined to lead -- as long as we get to pick them. 
 Bush. Clinton. Bush. Clinton? While it would be extraordinary in our history for two families to occupy the Oval Office consecutively for decades, political dynasties are as American as mudslinging and pork. 
 A full 45 percent of the members of the first Congress in 1789 had a relative who was also serving, according to Pedro Dal Bó, professor of economics at Brown University and co-author of a study on congressional dynasties. ..Two hundred years later, 10 percent of Congress has a close relative who has also served in the House or Senate. 
 (ブラウン大学の経済学教授で議会での世襲の研究の共著者であるPedro Dal Bó,によると、1789年の最初の連邦議会の議員の45%は議員である親類がいた。..200年後、議会の1割は下院か上院の議員を務めた近親者を持っている) 
 The evidence is all around us: the Gores, the Murkowskis, the Rockefellers, the Bakers, the Doles, the Bonos, the Meekses, the Dodds, the Tsongases, the Chafees. Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, the first woman to hold the position, is the daughter of former congressman Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. 
 Stephen Hess, a historian at the Brookings Institution, first made his name as the author of the 1966 book "America's Political Dynasties," which begins with the fact that there have been 700 families with two or more members of Congress, and they account for 1,700 of the 10,000 men and women who have served in the House and Senate. 
 (ブルックリン研究所の歴史家、Stephen Hessは1966年の"America's Political Dynasties"の著者である。それによると、議会で二人以上の議員をもつファミリーは700あり、上院下院議員を務めた1万人のうち、1700人を占めている) 
 ロサンゼルス・タイムズ紙(1月3日)のRosa Brooksは”A dynasty isn’t democracy”だとはっきり言う。Kings and queens pass along their political positions to their children. Paragons of democracy do not. (王、女王は政治的地位を子供に渡す。民主主義のかがみはそうはしない))We're perilously close to becoming a dynastic state ourselves. (われわれは世襲国家に危険なまでに近づきつつある)と警鐘を鳴らす。 
 Wikipediaは”List of political families”として、世界各国の”political families”の名前を挙げている。フィリピンのアロヨ大統領は大統領の娘である。ミャンマーの民主化運動の指導者、アウン・サン・スー・チーの父はビルマ独立の英雄アウンサン将軍。アゼルバイジャン、シリアでは父子間の権力の世襲が行われた。カザフスタン、ウズベキスタ、エジプト、リビアでも最高指導者の息子や娘が後継者に浮上している。 
 中国には太子党(princeling)という言葉がある。氷点前編集長の李大同はこの言葉を次のように説明している(openDemocracy 2007年10月17日)。 
 The term "princeling" does not, as commonly supposed, simply refer to the children of senior officials. In fact, it refers specifically to the children of those revolutionaries who played important roles in the Communist Party's seizure of power in 1949 
 In Chinese, "princeling" is a derogatory term, which is used to satirise those who have ridden to success on the coat-tails of their parents. 
 Nepal is set to sweep away a discredited monarchy but a new political dynasty is emerging to rule the Himalayan outpost with key elections scheduled for April. 
 Ailing Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala has appointed his controversial daughter as minister without portfolio and she has moved quickly to strengthen her role as the power behind the throne. 
 Sujata Koirala says she fully deserved the January 10 appointment to a seat in cabinet and scoffs at parallels with the political dynasties of South Asia -- the Gandhis, Bhuttos and Bandaranaikes. 
 He told a women's gathering in Kathmandu on New Year's Eve: "Very soon we will have a woman prime minister." 
 コイララ家は、ブラサド・コイララの二人の兄も首相を務めたことがあるpolitical dynastyである。 
 一方、パキスタンの政治を論じるサイト、pkpoliticsでGul Bukhariは、第3世界の”political dynasties”と西側の”political families”とは異なるもので、同列に扱うことはアジアや中東での世襲を正当化することになると主張する(1月5日)。 
 The Bhuttos of Pakistan, the Gandhis of India and the Kims of Korea are political dynasties, where the political mantle is clearly inherited, solely by virtue of birth. The transference process is dictatorial and autocratic in varying degrees, but dictatorial and accessional in nature nevertheless. 
 (パキスタンのブット家、インドのガンジー家、朝鮮の金家はpolitical dynastiesである。そこでは政治的役割が明確に生まれだけによって世襲される。移譲のプロセスは、程度は異なるが独裁的で専制的である。だが、それでもなお、本来的に独裁的で相続によるものである) 
 This is fundamentally different to plain ‘political familes’ of the west, like the Bush or the Clinton families. A comparison between the two categories is invalid, and the two cannot not be lumped together. 
 (これはブッシュ家やクリントン家のような西側の単純な”political families”とは根本的に異なる。二つの部類の間の比較は妥当でなく、一緒くたにすることはできない) 
 The Bush, Clinton and Kennedy families are like blacksmiths’, doctors’, lawyers’ or business families, where sons and daughters tend to follow the forefathers’ profession. The younger generations in these families naturally take advantage of the infrastructure, goodwill, and reputation created by the elders. 
 But neither, then, can these families be compared to politically dynastic families like the Bhuttos or the Kims. 

Copyright (C) Berita unless otherwise noted.
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